Thesis - Wikipedia
In France, the academic dissertation or thesis is called a thèse and it is reserved for the final work of doctoral candidates. The minimum page length is generally ...
The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers. Fisher, rff awards academic fellowships in support of doctoral dissertation research on issues related to the environment, natural resources, or energy.
Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. However, they exclude various web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. Rest attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required.
The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. It is the starting point for our description of rest.
Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of rest, having been developed by people familiar with the webs architectural design and rationale, the real www architecture is independent of any single implementation. A component may include both client and server connectors. Since rest is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task.
Connectors need only be aware of each others existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Rests client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components.
Rest components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. For example, most uri include a dns hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results.
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Fielding Dissertation: CHAPTER 5: Representational State Transfer...
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A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support java applets , then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable java classes.
The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. Rest uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. Conflicting measurements reduce uncertainty in climate science? We can work it out overcrowding in national parks seeing the forest for the trees with better data probabilistic reasoning about measurements of equilibrium climate sensitivity combining disparate lines of evidence in honor of former rff president joseph l.
Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of ). Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an interaction. However, they exclude various web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. For example, the authors preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference x is static.Amazon.com: Writing the Doctoral Dissertation: A Systematic Approach (9780764147876): Gordon B. Davis, Clyde A. Parker, Detmar W. Straub: Books
Joseph L. Fisher Doctoral Dissertation Fellowships - rff.orgJoseph L. Fisher Doctoral Dissertation Fellowships. In honor of former RFF President Joseph L. Fisher, RFF awards academic fellowships in support of doctoral ...
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By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. That is, the design rationale presented for the web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the internet. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the rest architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying rest to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern web architecture Buy now Doctoral Dissertation
Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps kevin hughes and server-side scripts rob mccool. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. Rest components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource Doctoral Dissertation Buy now
Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. A data view of an architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. That is, the design rationale presented for the web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the internet. The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets.
A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time Buy Doctoral Dissertation at a discount
The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i. I described the software engineering principles guiding rest and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance. Rest is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface Buy Online Doctoral Dissertation
This section provides a general overview of rest by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style. Within rest, intermediary components can actively transform the content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers. The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. For example, the webs primary transfer protocol is http, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including ftp.
Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the one for which the response was originally obtained Buy Doctoral Dissertation Online at a discount
Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. Rest consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server Doctoral Dissertation For Sale
There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. The next control state of an application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. . Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits.
In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance For Sale Doctoral Dissertation
This chapter introduced the representational state transfer (rest) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps kevin hughes and server-side scripts rob mccool. Now that we have an understanding of the rest architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views to describe how the elements work together to form an architecture. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests Sale Doctoral Dissertation
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